What is the most common teratogenic effect associated with thalidomide?

What is the most common teratogenic effect associated with thalidomide?

Thalidomide is a teratogenic drug, meaning that when taken while pregnant, it can have terrible impacts on fetal development and cause irreversible damages. Phocomelia, a limb atrophy, is the most common malformation linked to thalidomide, but all phocomelia cases aren’t caused by thalidomide.

Why is lithium contraindicated in pregnancy?

The risks to your baby with taking lithium while pregnant or breastfeeding are: Heart defects. Taking lithium in early pregnancy can increase the risk that your baby’s heart might not develop properly. Your doctor or midwife should monitor your baby’s heart using ultrasound scans.

How does lithium cause Ebstein’s anomaly?

Previous cohort studies have suggested an increased risk of congenital heart malformations among newborns exposed to lithium during pregnancy, specifically Ebstein’s anomaly, a right ventricular outflow obstruction (RVOTO) defect caused by the displacement of tricuspid valve leaflets.

Can lithium affect baby?

Lithium exposure is associated with increased risk of neonatal complications. Newport et al. found an association between high infant lithium concentrations and lower 1-min Apgar scores, higher rate of central nervous system and neuromuscular complications and longer duration of hospital stays (Newport et al. 2005).

Which teratogenic effect is seen because of lithium?

The results of various studies including cohort, prospective, retrospective and small number case reports indicate that lithium is a “weak” teratogen in humans. The main effects attributable to lithium are, cardiac malformations and babies with increased birth weight.

Which form of thalidomide is teratogenic?

Thalidomide exists in two mirror-image forms: it is a racemic mixture of (R)- and (S)-enantiomers. The (R)-enantiomer, shown in the figure, has sedative effects, whereas the (S)-isomer is teratogenic.

How is lithium teratogenic?

What bipolar medications are safe during pregnancy?

Treatment Options for Women With Bipolar Disorder During Pregnancy

  • Lithium;
  • Antiepileptic medications including carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and valproic acid; and.
  • Atypical antipsychotic medications: aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone.

Which drug may cause Ebstein Anomaly as a teratogenic effect?

Conclusions. Maternal use of lithium during the first trimester was associated with an increased risk of cardiac malformations, including Ebstein’s anomaly; the magnitude of this effect was smaller than had been previously postulated.

What teratogenic effect is seen because of lithium?

Is lithium excreted in breastmilk?

With regard to breastfeeding, lithium is excreted in human breast milk at a mean rate of approximately 50% (range 0.17–1.07%) of the mother serum concentration (Weinstein and Goldfield, 1969; Fries, 1970; Tunnessen and Hertz, 1972; Schou and Amdisen, 1973; Sykes et al., 1976; Viguera et al., 2007; Tanaka et al., 2008).

Which teratogenic effect is seen due to lithium during pregnancy?

Lithium, another GSK-3 inhibitor, has been shown to have mild teratogenic effects in humans, potentially causing cardiac malformations, such as Ebstein anomaly or increased birth weight (Giles and Bannigan, 2006) through an incompletely described mechanism.

What kind of teratogenic effects does thalidomide have?

Fifty years ago, prescription of the sedative thalidomide caused a worldwide epidemic of multiple birth defects. The drug is now used in the treatment of leprosy and multiple myeloma. However, its use is limited due to its potent teratogenic activity. The mechanism by which thalidomide causes limb m …

What are the teratogenic and developmental effects of lithium?

Teratogenic and developmental effects of lithium A review is presented on the effects of lithium in therapeutic doses on the outcome of human pregnancy. The results of various studies including cohort, prospective, retrospective and small number case reports indicate that lithium is a “weak” teratogen in humans.

Why was thalidomide taken out of the market?

Thalidomide was sold worldwide as a sedative over 60 years ago, but it was quickly withdrawn from the market due to its teratogenic effects. Thalidomide was later found to have therapeutic effects in several diseases, although the molecular mechanisms remained unclear.

How many children are still affected by thalidomide?

More than 10,000 children around the world were born with thalidomide-related birth defects, and tragically, many of these children, now adults, still suffer from the effects of thalidomide. What exactly is the chemistry behind this tragedy? This is where the concept of enantiomers comes in.

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