Who was King Gaumata?
|Portrait of the Achaemenid ruler toppled by Darius, as appearing on the Behistun inscription: he was either the legitimate Bardiya, or, as claimed by Darius, an imposter named Gaumāta.|
|King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire|
What did Herodotus say about Darius?
His economic goals bring problems too; Darius needs money for his imperial ambitions. Before listing the resources and tax basis for the empire, Herodotus comments that the Persians call Darius a kapêlos, a retail merchant (3.89.
What do Cyrus and Darius have in common?
Both. They were both lenient with their subjects even allowing the Jews to return to Jerusalem and rebuild their temple.
Which Persian usurped the throne?
It’s thought he may have staged a coup to claim the throne. Some Persians viewed Darius as a usurper, and many subjects in distant lands saw the succession crisis as an opportunity to rebel. As a result, Darius spent his first three years quelling uprisings.
Who killed Bardiya?
The Greek historian Herodotus and the Persian king Darius, in his inscription at Bīsitūn, state that Bardiya was murdered by his brother, Cambyses II, but was later successfully impersonated by Gaumata, a Magian, who was able to seize the throne when Cambyses died in 522 bce.
How did the Greco-Persian wars start?
The Persian Wars began in 499 BCE, when Greeks in the Persian-controlled territory rose in the Ionian Revolt. Athens, and other Greek cities, sent aid, but were quickly forced to back down after defeat in 494 BCE. Subsequently, the Persians suffered many defeats at the hands of the Greeks, led by the Athenians.
Who should have won the Persian War?
The Greeks won a decisive victory, losing only 192 men to the Persians’ 6,400 (according to the historian Herodotus).
Was Darius the Great related to Cyrus the Great?
Darius was a member of the royal bodyguard of Cambyses II, the son and heir of Cyrus the Great who ruled for several years before dying mysteriously in 522. Later that same year, Darius took the throne after killing an alleged usurper he claimed had only pretended to be Cambyses’ brother Bardiya.
How did Cyrus treat the peoples he conquered?
Cyrus the Great saw himself as a liberator of people and not a conqueror. As long as his subjects didn’t revolt and paid their taxes, he treated them equally regardless of religion or ethnic background. He agreed to let the people he conquered maintain their religion and local customs.
Why did Darius invade Greece?
The invasion, consisting of two distinct campaigns, was ordered by the Persian king Darius the Great primarily in order to punish the city-states of Athens and Eretria. Darius also saw the opportunity to extend his empire into Europe, and to secure its western frontier.
Is the story of Darius and Smerdis true?
[Herodotus, Histories 3.67 .] Although we do best never to trust ancient texts at face value, we may probably believe Darius’ story that the Smerdis he killed was indeed a false Smerdis, someone who did not belong to the Achaemenid dynasty and may have been a Mede by birth.
How did the false Smerdis succeed in his deception?
The false Smerdis succeeds in the deception by not allowing anyone who knew the real Smerdis into his presence (3.61). Still in Egypt, Cambyses learns of the false Smerdis, and knowing that the real Smerdis is dead, recognises the deception.
Who was Gaumata and who was the real Smerdis?
Darius states in the Behistun inscription that the man he had now succeeded was not the real Smerdis (who he claims was killed before Cambyses set out for Egypt) and that the rebel was a lookalike named Gaumâta. This man was a Magian and there are some indications that ‘Magians’ were not Persians but Medes.
Who was the Persian king who claimed to be Smerdis?
Later, a Persian named Vahyazdâta proclaimed himself king, also claiming to be the real Smerdis. He seized the Persian palace (probably at Pasargadae) and was able to subdue Arachosia. But one of Darius’ generals, Artavardiyâ, defeated this king on 24 May 521 BCE, after which he was forced to flee to the east.