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What is the pathophysiology of acute glomerulonephritis?

What is the pathophysiology of acute glomerulonephritis?

Acute glomerulonephritis (GN) comprises a specific set of renal diseases in which an immunologic mechanism triggers inflammation and proliferation of glomerular tissue that can result in damage to the basement membrane, mesangium, or capillary endothelium.

What is the pathogenesis in glomerulonephritis?

Recent evidence establishes that mesangial cell proliferation in glomerulonephritis is mediated by complement and platelets. Mesangial cell proliferation is accompanied by increased expression of PDGF and PDGF receptor proteins and the genes for these proteins resulting in an autocrine mechanism of cell proliferation.

What is the pathophysiology of nephritic syndrome?

The major underlying pathology is inflammation of the glomerulus that results in nephritic syndrome. It causes a sudden onset of the appearance of red blood cell (RBC) casts and blood cells, a variable amount of proteinuria, and white blood cells in the urine.

What type of a disease is acute glomerulonephritis?

Glomerulonephritis is a type of kidney disease. It involves damage to the glomeruli (tiny filters) inside your kidneys. If you have glomerulonephritis, your kidneys can have trouble removing waste and fluid from your body. If the condition becomes severe, it can lead to kidney failure.

What is the etiology of glomerulonephritis?

What causes acute glomerulonephritis? The acute disease may be caused by infections such as strep throat. It may also be caused by other illnesses, including lupus, Goodpasture’s syndrome, Wegener’s disease, and polyarteritis nodosa. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are important to prevent kidney failure.

What happens acute glomerulonephritis?

Glomerulonephritis can damage your kidneys so that they lose their filtering ability. As a result, dangerous levels of fluid, electrolytes and waste build up in your body. Possible complications of glomerulonephritis include: Acute kidney failure.

What are the renal effects of glomerulonephritis?

What are the signs and symptoms of acute glomerulonephritis?

Glomerulonephritis signs and symptoms include:

  • Pink or cola-colored urine from red blood cells in your urine (hematuria)
  • Foamy urine due to excess protein (proteinuria)
  • High blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Fluid retention (edema) with swelling evident in your face, hands, feet and abdomen.

What are the risk factors of acute glomerulonephritis?

The risk factors for Acute Glomerulonephritis include: Having a condition which weakens the immune system and increases the risk of chronic infection, such as HIV or hepatitis viral infections. Bacterial infections such as strep throat.

What usually precedes acute glomerulonephritis?

Acute glomerulonephritis is primarily a disease of children older than 2 years of age, but it can occur at nearly any age. In most cases of acute glomerulonephritis, a group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection of the throat precedes the onset of glomerulonephritis by 2 to 3 weeks (Fig. 45-3).

What are the physical signs of acute glomerulonephritis (GN)?

The signs and symptoms of Acute Glomerulonephritis may include: Swollen face, especially observed in the early mornings Brown or pink urine; foaming urine Less frequent urination High blood pressure

How is acute glomerulonephritis (GN) treated?

For acute glomerulonephritis and acute kidney failure, dialysis can help remove excess fluid and control high blood pressure. The only long-term therapies for end-stage kidney disease are kidney dialysis and kidney transplant. When a transplant isn’t possible, often because of poor general health, dialysis is the only option.

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