What is Chondrogenesis process?
ESC chondrogenesis can be characterized by five main stages of cellular, extracellular and molecular events: (1) Condensation of differentiated ESCs, (2) Differentiation into chondrocytes and fibril scaffold formation, (3) ECM deposition and cartilage formation, (4) Hypertrophy and degradation of cartilage, and (5) …
What is micromass culture?
The micromass culture technique was initially developed to study chondrogenesis and consists of high-density dot cultures of dissociated limb bud cells. The sequence of chondrogenic events within micromass cultures recapitulates the sequence observed in vivo.
What is chondrogenic medium?
ChondroLife™ Complete Chondrogenesis Frozen Medium is a new medium optimized for the differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells into chondrocytes. ChondroLife™ chondrogenic medium contains no antimicrobials and no phenol red.
What causes chondrogenesis?
Mesenchymal cells that undergo chondrogenesis derive from neural crest cells, which originate from the neural crest ridge of the neural ectoderm; the presegmented paraxial mesoderm that differentiates into somites to elicit the sclerotome compartment, which leads to formation of the axis skeleton; and the somatopleure …
What is the function of Perichondrium?
The fibrous nature of perichondrium tissue allows blood flow to easily pass through your body. This steady blood flow helps distribute nutrients necessary to strengthen and nourish your cartilage. Fibrous perichondrium tissue also allows oxygen and nutrients to flow without obstruction.
What are the functions of the Perichondrium?
The perichondrium consists of an outer fibrous layer that contains fibroblasts and an inner chondrogenic layer that contains chondroblasts. The main functions of the perichondrium are to protect bones from injury and damage, nourish cartilage through blood vessels, and facilitate cartilage growth.
How does chondrogenesis occur in a skeletogenic cell?
Chondrogenesis, the fate of most skeletogenic cells, results in the construction of a multitude of cartilage anlagen, which altogether constitute the primary skeleton of the vertebrate embryo (Fig. 8.3 A). This process occurs in two steps: precartilaginous condensation and chondrocyte early differentiation ( Fig. 8.3 B). Figure 8.3.
How are extracellular enzymes involved in chondrogenesis?
Chondrogenesis is a well-orchestrated process mediated by interactions between cellular receptors, growth factors, and surrounding matrix proteins. Extracellular enzymes, which include the matrix metallopeptidases, lead to the activation of cell signaling pathways and gene expression in a temporal-spatial-specific manner.
What is the role of signaling modulators in chondrogenesis?
The full integration of signaling modulators that drive chondrogenesis, and the subsequent maturation of chondrocytes during endochondral ossification summarized below was reviewed recently. 169 Chondrogenesis is a well-orchestrated process mediated by interactions between cellular receptors, growth factors, and surrounding matrix proteins.
How does the interplay of positive and negative factors affect chondrogenesis?
During chondrogenesis, the interplay of positive and negative factors controls the rate and progression of chondrogenesis. The discovery and elucidation of several novel pathways have increased our knowledge of the complex gene networks during the different stages of chondrocyte differentiation, proliferation, and maturation.