What does mediastinal widening mean?
DISCUSSION. Mediastinal widening on CXR is defined as width of more than 8 cm on posteroanterior view. It can be commonly due to lymph node enlargement, vascular causes, neoplasia, and rarely due to gastrointestinal causes such as achalasia or hernia.
What is the mediastinum cavity?
The mediastinum is the central (midline) portion of the thoracic cavity. It contains all of the extrapulmonary structures of the cranial and caudal thoracic cavity, including esophagus, trachea, thymus, lymph nodes, nerves, and major blood vessels.
What is mediastinum and its types?
The mediastinum is an area found in the midline of the thoracic cavity, that is surrounded by the left and right pleural sacs. It is divided into the superior and inferior mediastinum, of which the latter is larger. The inferior mediastinum is further divided into the anterior, middle and posterior mediastinum.
What is mediastinum in radiology?
The mediastinum is a space in the thorax that contains a group of organs, vessels, nerves, lymphatics and their surrounding connective tissue. It lies in the midline of the chest between the pleura of each lung and extends from the sternum to the vertebral column.
What can cause mediastinal widening?
A wide mediastinum has many causes which include the following:
- Thoracic aortic aneurysm of the ascending and proximal descending aorta.
- Aortic dissection of ascending and proximal descending aorta.
- Unfolding of the aorta.
- Traumatic aortic rupture.
- Hilar lymphadenopathy either infectious or malignant.
Why is mediastinum widened?
Widening of the mediastinum is most often due to technical factors such as patient positioning or the projection used. Rotation, incomplete inspiration, or an AP view, may all exaggerate the width of the mediastinum, as well as heart size.
What is in the pleural cavity?
The pleural cavity is the space that lies between the pleura, the two thin membranes that line and surround the lungs. The pleural cavity contains a small amount of liquid known as pleural fluid, which provides lubrication as the lungs expand and contract during respiration.
Why is the mediastinum important?
The mediastinum houses many vital structures including the heart, great vessels, trachea, and essential nerves. It also functions as a protected pathway for structures traversing from the neck, superiorly, and into the abdomen, inferiorly.
What is the function of the mediastinum?
What are the four radiographically important structures found in the mediastinum?
8.7 ANATOMY AND RADIOGRAPHY OF THE MEDIASTINUM It accommodates a large number of structures, including the heart, large blood vessels, trachea, oesophagus and lymph nodes, and lies roughly in the midline (Figs 8.1 and 8.7A and B).
What is the medical dictionary definition of mediastinum?
2. the mass of tissues and organs separating the two pleural sacs, between the sternum in front and the vertebral column behind, containing the heart and its large vessels, trachea, esophagus, thymus, lymph nodes, and other structures and tissues; it is divided into superior and inferior regions, the latter subdivided into anterior, middle, and
Which is lymph node metastasises into the middle mediastinum?
With increasing length of mid-thoracic ESCC, the lymph node metastasis into the middle mediastinum rose. Transport of air along sheaths of pulmonic blood vessels from alveoli to mediastinum :clinical implications.
What kind of surgery is needed for mediastinum?
The cervical approach will enable the resection of lesions in the neck and upper mediastinum, whereas large mediastinal lesions and lower or posterior mediastinal lesions will require thoracotomy, median sternotomy, or thoracoscopy.