Is diabetes associated with Down syndrome?
Down’s syndrome (DS) is known to be associated with autoimmune disease including type 1 diabetes. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of DS with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the literature.
What medical problems are likely in a patient with Down syndrome?
These complications can include:
- Heart defects. About half the children with Down syndrome are born with some type of congenital heart defect.
- Gastrointestinal (GI) defects.
- Immune disorders.
- Sleep apnea.
- Spinal problems.
Which condition is associated with type 1 diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is often associated with autoimmune diseases such as: autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD), celiac disease (CD), autoimmune gastritis (AIG), pernicious anemia (PA) and vitiligo. Autoimmune thyroid disease is the most prevalent endocrinopathy among diabetic patients.
What are the major issues related to Down syndrome?
Potentially serious complications — The most serious complications of Down syndrome include heart defects, blood disorders that can include leukemia (cancer of the blood), and immune system problems. Heart defects — Approximately half of all babies with Down syndrome are born with (often repairable) heart defects.
What body systems are affected by Down syndrome?
Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that can affect many different parts of the body. An extra part or whole Chromosome 21 is the cause of Down syndrome. It is the most common chromosomal abnormality. This syndrome can affect the heart, the brain, the hormone system and the skeleton.
What conditions are associated with diabetes?
There are a number of conditions associated with diabetes. These include coeliac disease, thyroid disease and haemochromatosis.
- Coeliac disease.
- Thyroid disease.
- Polycystic ovary syndrome.
- Diabetes insipidus.
- Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum.
- Muscular conditions, including: Limited joint mobility.
- Dental problems.
What type of mutation causes type 1 diabetes?
The causes of type 1 diabetes are unknown, although several risk factors have been identified. The risk of developing type 1 diabetes is increased by certain variants of the HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1, and HLA-DRB1 genes. These genes provide instructions for making proteins that play a critical role in the immune system.
Is type 1 diabetes an autoimmune disease?
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. The pancreas can’t make insulin because the immune system attacks it and destroys the cells that produce insulin. Kids and teens with type 1 diabetes are at risk for other autoimmune problems, but these aren’t actually caused by the diabetes.
When do type 1 diabetes complications start?
These complications develop over many years—usually at least 10 years—and they all relate to how blood glucose levels can affect blood vessels. Uncontrolled blood glucose can, over time, damage the body’s tiny and large blood vessels.
When is type 1 diabetes diagnosed in Down syndrome?
Type 1 diabetes is typically diagnosed in childhood and the hallmark of the disease is the decreased production of insulin by the pancreas. People with Down syndrome (DS) are more often diagnosed with endocrine disorders than people in the general population and type 1 DM is an endocrine disorder.
What kind of diabetes is most common in children with Down syndrome?
A more recent population-based study of the prevalence of type 1 diabetes in Down’s syndrome in Denmark demonstrated a fourfold increased risk of type 1 diabetes in children with Down’s syndrome ( 7 ). Although classification was generally made on clinical grounds alone, most appear to have type 1 diabetes.
Are there autoimmune diseases in children with Down syndrome?
There is an unexplained excess of type 1 diabetes and other organ-specific autoimmune diseases in children with Down’s syndrome, but the immunogenetic characteristics of diabetes in Down’s syndrome have not been investigated.
Are there any health problems associated with Down syndrome?
However, each individual with Down syndrome is different, and not every person will have serious health problems. Many of these associated conditions can be treated with medication, surgery, or other interventions. Some of the conditions that occur more often among children with Down syndrome include: Heart defects.