How are humans causing change on the Holderness coast?
Human interference, such as sea defences, causes rapid erosion of the unprotected beaches and cliffs. To counter this, local and regional authorities are nowadays trying set up integrated coastal zone management programmes for the whole coastline.
What are the causes of erosion on the Holderness coast?
There are two main reasons why this area of coast is eroding so rapidly. The first is the result of the strong prevailing winds creating longshore drift that moves material south along the coastline. The second is that the cliffs are made of soft boulder clay which erodes rapidly when saturated.
How is the Holderness area used by humans?
Man-made structures – groynes have been installed to stop long-shore drift. This narrows unprotected beaches elsewhere even more. Powerful waves – waves at Holderness travel long distances over the North Sea (so have a long fetch ) which means they will increase in energy.
How does global warming cause coastal erosion?
Global warming causes sea-level rise as oceans expand, and makes storm patterns more energetic. Consequently it will affect most of the world’s coastlines through inundation and increased erosion. Coastal flooding is somewhat easier to predict than erosion since inundation can be estimated using coastal contours.
Why is erosion such a problem at Holderness?
The Holderness Coast is one of Europe’s fastest eroding coastlines. The average annual rate of erosion is around 2 metres per year. The main reason for this is because the bedrock is made up of till (soft clay). Since Roman times, the Holderness Coast has retreated 4 km – at least 29 villages have been lost to the sea.
How does human activity increase coastal erosion?
Human activity can increase rates of coastal recession by interrupting the operation of the sediment cell. The construction of major dams of rivers can trap river sediment behind the dam wall. This then starves the coast of a sediment source, leading to serious consequences.
How human activities causes soil erosion?
Overgrazing, over cropping and or deforestation can lead to desertification – the spread of desert like lands due to these human activities accelerating natural erosion of soil. This may occur in areas of deforestation, mountain slopes or as a general practice to plant a seedling for each tree cut down.
What are the main reasons to protect the Holderness coast?
Advantages – Protects the base of cliffs, land and buildings against erosion. Can prevent coastal flooding in some areas. Disadvantages = Expensive to build. Curved sea walls reflect the energy of the waves back to the sea.
How will global warming affect agriculture?
Climate change can affect agriculture in a variety of ways. Beyond a certain range of temperatures, warming tends to reduce yields because crops speed through their develop- ment, producing less grain in the process. And higher tem- peratures also interfere with the ability of plants to get and use moisture.
How might global warming affect coastal areas?
Climate change threatens coastal areas, which are already stressed by human activity, pollution, invasive species, and storms. Sea level rise could erode and inundate coastal ecosystems and eliminate wetlands. Warmer and more acidic oceans are likely to disrupt coastal and marine ecosystems.
How does climate change affect the Holderness coastline?
Tidal range at the Holderness coast is very high and can reach up to 7 m. Sea level rise associated with climate change and the prevailing north-easterly wind conspire to make this coast susceptible to rapid rates of coastal erosion. The Holderness Coast has been long recognised as Europe’s fastest eroding.
What are some human activities that cause erosion?
Aside from desertification, there is no doubt that human activities are a major cause of soil erosion in general. Construction of roads and buildings, logging, mining, and agricultural production have resulted in large amounts of soil erosion in the U.S. and around the world.